Writing 20/21/23 Objectives


Writing 20, 21, and 23 are taken by students who have been assessed or self-described as needing additional work on their writing after Core and before moving on to C2. Like all writing courses, Writing 20, 21, and 23 address both reading and writing and approach each of these on multiple levels. While the topics addressed in Writing 20, 21, and 23 will overlap with those in C2, these topics will generally be addressed in Writing 20, 21, and 23 with more explicit scaffolding and with more detailed articulation of the distinct strategies and skills that can be applied at any stage of the composing process.


Writing 20, 21, and 23 affirm and supplement the goals of C1/C2, and to this end:

1. Students in Writing 20, 21, and 23 learn—when reading, writing, listening, or speaking—to analyze rhetorical situations so as to understand their different purposes and contexts and to respond to these with appropriate strategies.

2. Students in Writing 20, 21, and 23 learn to recognize, evaluate, and discuss matters of opinion and interpretation (their own and others’).

3. Students in Writing 20, 21, and 23 learn to develop different effective processes for writing in different contexts, particularly those used within the academic community, and to use a variety of strategies for discovering, developing, analyzing, and defending ideas, for making sense, for revising, and for editing.

4. Students in Writing 20, 21, and 23 learn to produce writing that:

• establishes and maintains an appropriate purpose in relation to the assignment and the audience

• employs appropriate strategies of development in relation to the assignment, its context, and its audience

• uses sources’ information and ideas accurately and effectively and cites sources appropriately

• communicates in accurate, appropriate, effective prose

5.  Students in Writing 20, 21, and 23 learn strategies for becoming more accurate readers and critical analysts of all texts, including their own.

6. Students in Writing 20, 21, and 23 learn how to collaborate with others in generating and evaluating ideas and revising texts.


Writing 20, The Nature of Written Discourse

As they move from Core and prepare for C2, students experience facilitated entry into communities of scholarly communication. This entry emphasizes the importance of context, helping students build a repertoire of skills that will allow them to recognize, evaluate, and participate in conversations in a range of disciplines.

Students in Writing 20 will:

1. Do close reading of a variety of texts, generally of article length.

2. Develop and practice reading strategies that allow them both to process texts in their most literal sense, but also in terms of their implications, assumptions, and underlying purposes.

3. Develop recursive, inductive reasoning skills that can be applied to their reading and writing and that allow development of a nuanced stance, rather than simple agreement/disagreement.

4. Make explicit use of the often recursive and sometimes intuitive processes of composing and revising.

5. Recognize and begin to make use of a variety of the conventions of academic writing.

6. Write frequently both in and out of class producing not only essays, but other works that allow them to use writing to generate ideas, assess their own understanding of challenging concepts, and to experiment with a variety of rhetorical stances and approaches.

7. Learn to distinguish between topic, stance and purpose.

8. Develop individual strategies for identifying and correcting problems with their own prose.

9. Begin developing a vocabulary that allows discussion of writing and revising  (their own and others’) on multiple levels.

10. Hone and present their ideas in writing in a way that allows for increasing complexity and precision of these ideas.

Writing 21, Meaning and Style: the Sentence in Context

Catalogue Description: Explores, via cross-cultural readings, the nature, uses, and abuses of language. Course work includes extensive writing, both take-home and in-class. Emphasis on revising for power of expression and for variety and accuracy at the sentence level.

Students in Writing 21 will:

1. Refine strategies for reading texts of different lengths.

2. Learn to interact with texts in ways that acknowledge implicit, as well as explicit, ideas, claims, and purposes.

3. Use writing and discussion to contextualize their own ideas within and alongside the ideas of other writers.

4. Continue to develop effective personal writing processes that can be adjusted to meet multiple rhetorical situations.

5. Continue to experiment with and control the conventions of academic writing.

6. Explore the interplay between purpose and audience and begin to understand how this can inform their decisions as writers.

7. Further develop individual strategies for identifying and correcting problems with their own prose.

8. Continue to master methods of evaluation of and response to written texts that move beyond simple agreement/disagreement.

9. Expand their personal and academic vocabulary in order to explore texts and express ideas ideas more richly and precisely.

Writing 23, Grammar and Rhetoric: Language and Writing

Catalogue Description: Builds on writing skills gained in previous writing courses; focuses on effective language use in academic writing. Students reinforce their written English proficiency by reading, studying, practicing, and writing structures and patterns of written English.

Students in Writing 23 will:

1. Interact critically with a variety of academic texts through both discussion and writing.

2. Develop written responses to texts employing information beyond that contained within the texts themselves.

3. Write in ways that reflect an ability to use the conventions of academic discourse to develop and defend their own ideas.

4. Broaden the range of rhetorical strategies they are comfortable employing in the process of developing their own ideas in writing.

5. Write frequently both in and out of class in response to readings and ideas from a range of disciplines.

6. Continue to develop individual strategies for identifying and correcting problems with their own prose.

7. Use writing to explore, evaluate, and—when appropriate—reconcile a variety of stances on a single topic.

8. Continue to develop a rich, precise vocabulary that reflects an understanding of the norms of academic discourse within specific disciplines.